Operation and maintenance of software development

This stage confirms the work of software in terms of greater efficiency and fewer errors. If necessary, users undergo training or receive assistance on how to work with software and how to support it. The software is supported in a timely manner by updating the code in accordance with the changes taking place in the user environment or technology. This phase may encounter problems due to hidden errors and real unidentified problems.


Over time, software may worsen in terms of performance. This can be completely outdated or may require intense update. Therefore, there is an urgent need to eliminate the main part of the system. This stage includes archiving data and the necessary software components, the closure of the system, planning for disposal and completion of the system at the corresponding time of the end of the system.

Software development paradigm

The software development paradigm helps the developer choose a software development strategy. The paradigm of software development has its own set of tools, methods and procedures that are clearly expressed and determine the program of software development. Several paradigms of software development or process models are determined as follows:

Model of the waterfall

The Waterfall model is the simplest model of the software development paradigm. It says that all SDLC phases will function one after another linearly. That is, when the first phase is finished, then only the second phase will begin and so on.

This model suggests that everything was completed and performed perfectly, as planned at the previous stage, and there is no need to think about past problems that may arise at the next stage. This model does not work smoothly if some problems are left in the previous step. The sequential nature of the model does not allow us to return back and cancel or repeat our actions.

This model is best suited when the developers have already designed and developed similar software in the past and know all its areas.

Iteration model

This model conducts the process of developing software in iterations. He designs the process of developing cyclically, repeating each step after each cycle of the SDLC process.

Iteration model

The software is first developed on a very small scale, and all the stages that are taken into account are performed. Then, on each next iteration, more and more functions and modules are developed, encoded, tested and added to the software. Each cycle produces software, which in itself is full and has more opportunities and opportunities than in the previous one.

After each iteration, the management team can perform risk management and prepare for the next iteration. Since the cycle includes a small part of the entire software development process, it is easier to manage the development process, but it consumes more resources.

Spiral model

A spiral model is a combination of an iterative model and SDLC model. It may look as if you are choosing one SDLC model and combining it with a cyclic process (iteration model).

Spiral model

This model takes into account the risk that often remains unnoticed by most other models. The model begins with determining the goals and limitations of software at the beginning of one iteration. The next step is to create a prototype of software. This includes risk analysis. Then, to build software, one standard SDLC model is used. At the fourth stage, the next iteration plan is being prepared.

V is a model

The main disadvantage of the waterfall model is that we move to the next stage only when the previous one is completed, and there was no way to go back if something was found incorrectly in later stages. The V-model provides software testing tools at each stage in the reverse order.


At each stage, testing plans and test sets are created to verify and validate the product in accordance with the requirements of this stage. For example, at the stage of collecting requirements, the testing group prepares all control examples in accordance with the requirements. Later, when the product is developed and ready for testing, control examples of this stage check the software for compliance with the requirements at this stage.

This allows you to check and check in parallel. This model is also known as a model of verification and validation.

Model of a large explosion

This model is the simplest model in shape. This requires little planning, a lot of programming and a lot of funds. This model is conceptualized around a large explosion of the universe. As scientists say, after a large explosion, many galaxies, planets and stars evolved as an event. Similarly, if we collect a lot of programs and tools, you can get the best software product.

Model of a large explosion

This model requires a very small amount of planning. This does not follow any process, or from time to time the client is not sure of the requirements and future needs. Thus, the input requirements are arbitrary.

This model is not suitable for large software projects, but good for training and experiments.

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